Modern dentistry unites all fields of dentistry whose ultimate goal is to improve the patient’s looks. The stress is no longer on functionality and the comfort of the patient but beautification.

A porcelain veneer is a thin prosthetic shell, covering the surface of a tooth. Porcelain veneers are bonded directly to the front of teeth with adhesive cement for an immediate improvement in the shape, color and function of each tooth. The positive aspect of porcelain veneers is that they can be buffed and shaped without further damaging the patients tooth.

The prosthetic replacements of today (bridges and crowns…) are made of porcelain- fused- to metal- structure (classical metal based ceramics) and full- porcelain prosthetics. Full-porcelain ceramics is made with the help of CAD/CAM technology .The advantage of full-porcelain ceramics is that it is biocompatible (it doesn’t irritate the gums) and it mimics the natural tooth enamel far better that porcelain-fused –to -metal prosthetics. There are many types: zirconium-oxide, empress…which one will use in accordance to indications.

Is a type of ceramic which is used in prosthetic and restorative dentistry. In comparison to classical metal-fused-to-ceramics, it doesn’t have a dark metal base but in its stead has a Zirconium base, which with its high strength and comparatively high fracture resistance, it leaves metals in its wake. Its advantage is primarily aesthetic because its white base mimics the natural tooth far better than a metal-fused- to ceramic-system. The core or base is prepared or tapered and then after being scanned using CAD/CAM technology, is further prepared so that the edge of the fabricated crown fits the tooth perfectly.

Tooth whitening is a process in which the mineral structure of the tooth is oxidized using various chemical processes hence it is bleached and made whiter. It may be done in the dental lounge itself using lasers or the patient may be given personalized guardian whitening trays for at –home whitening. The side effects may be a temporary sensitivity of the teeth which disappears a few days after treatment.

Fixed prosthetics include bridges, crowns, veneers, inlays and onlays etc.The patient is able to take ample care of fixed prosthetics when they have enough supporting teeth and when they are adequately positioned.

When it is impossible to use fixed prosthetics dew to a lack of teeth which can be used as support then we can construct and use mobile appliances to replace missing teeth. Mobile replacements are better known as dentures. They can be complete or partial depending on the number of teeth one needs to replace. They are completely made of acrylic resin (“plastic”) or in combination with metal.

Dental implants are “screws” commonly manufactured from alloys (most commonly Titanium) which are, in the absents of teeth implanted into the bone. The basic predisposition for their indication is the amount of bone present.

The success of the replacement of teeth with implants also depends on the general physical condition of the patient and their habits (smoking, alcohol consumption, oral hygiene) The implantation is usually followed by a period of osseointegration in which the implant is fused into the bone. The implants of today are commonly conical in shape and threaded.

The surface can be smooth or rough which in its way improves and shortens the period of osseointegration. After successful osseointegration one then goes on to construct a suitable prosthetic solution (Crown, bridge, dentures on implants).

The periodontium is the supporting tissue around the teeth. It includes the gingiva (gums), alveolar bone, cementum and the periodontal ligament.

Peridontology studies the supporting structures of teeth and the diseases and conditions that affect them. Periodontitis as a disease of the oral cavity and together with dental cavites, it is the most widespread of oral diseases. The final outcome of these two diseases is usually the loss of teeth due to the loss of supporting tissue or the tooth itself, if not treated. Periodontal treatment is time consuming and demands a high level of hygiene in the patient, as well as exceptional motivation. The periodontum can’t be completely restored but it can be improved and the progress of further deterioration can be stopped. Therapy may be classical or surgical.

The classical methods include regular cleaning of calculus (the scaling and polishing of the root of the tooth)

With surgical methods the most common is open flap debridement were one opens the gum and removes as much of the disease activity as possible. Today we have many new and advanced methods of growing new bone, methods of bone transplantation and methods of transplanting supporting tissue.

Apicoectomy is a surgical resection of the root end. It is usually performed when inflammation of the surrounding tissue of the root is persistent and is not able to be treated with classical endodontic treatment. Herein the tooth is saved and the focal point of disease is removed from the body because bacteria from the focal point “travel” to other organic systems.

Is the removal of a cyst and its contents. It is usually done in combination with an Apicoectomy. Both procedures are done under local anesthetic. The post operative swelling lasts 2-3 days and is not excessively painful.

The wisdom teeth are teeth which appear between the ages of 18 and 30.Their eruption through the gum line is usually followed by complications. Their eruption often results in Pericoronitis (an inflammation of the surrounding tissue).The inflammation usually occurs because of the partial eruption of the crown which allows food to get caught up in the supportive tissue still covering the tooth.

When repeated pericoronitis occurs the only solution is extraction. Complications may occur due to the wrong positioning of the third molars. They may be even be horizontally positioned and while erupting impact and push the tooth in front. The patient may feel from slight discomfort up to extreme sensitivity in the area of the tooth in front. Surgical extraction of the third molar may be extremely complicated because the removal of the surrounding bone above them may be necessary so that their exact position might be uncovered and in so doing allowing them to be removed.

The patient may have difficulty in opening their mouth due to inflammation so this inflammation must be treated first.

The alveolar bone of the dental arches, in the course of time, due to atrophy and extraction may become deformed. These bone deformations (“lumps”) may cause discomfort and hinder the wearing of prosthetic devices. Therefore they must be leveled. If it is, this procedure is required and is usually performed before an implantation or some other necessary dental procedure.

Healthy primary teeth, just like the child’s first permanent teeth are a basic precondition for normal growth and the development of permanent teeth and jaws. There are 20 primary teeth (“Baby teeth”) altogether which should erupt before the child is two. A child, up to its twelfth year, has both permanent and primary teeth.

Primary teeth should be treated and kept in the dental cavity right up to they are naturally lost. Besides the function of chewing food and the function in speech development, they also serve to maintain the space that is necessary for the eventual eruption of permanent teeth. These teeth are extracted prematurely only in the case of widespread inflammation of the root of the primary tooth which poses a threat to the development of permanent tooth.

A replacement tooth is put in when one notices a leaning of the other teeth into the cavity to secure space for the permanent tooth. The child’s first visit to the dentist should be as early as possible and in the absence of pain so that the child develops a pleasant attitude and a feeling of trust towards their Dentist. It is recommended that a child in its initial visit to a dentist has a topical fluoridation of the teeth done (a treatment of the child’s teeth with fluoride) to protect the teeth from caries. Parents may allow the use of pastes containing fluoride but this is not recommended because there is always a danger of the child swallowing the paste. In such a case, fluoride tablets may be used after a consultation and if prescribed by ones dentist.

The child’s first permanent teeth, the third molars, erupt in the child’s sixth year and are very important for a normal occlusion ,( the proper alignment of both upper and lower dental arches).These teeth can be repaired with onlays and inlays (fillings) without the filing of the tooth.

  • Digital orthopantomogram( a two dimensional x ray of both jaws)
  • Intra oral camera
  • The option of having a CT done(a three dimensional depiction of the jaw)

Is a specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions (improper bites).There are fixed appliances (braces) and removable appliances.

As their name implies, they may be removed and inserted. They are usually used at a younger age while the jaws and teeth are still developing intensively, directing their proper growth.

Popularly called brackets stay glued in the mouth until therapy in ended. There are many different types of appliances which use different metal or white brackets. They can be glued to the front or to the back of the surface of the tooth. The treatment with braces (the active phase) is followed by the wearing of a retainer (the passive phase).This is a removable appliance which the patient must wear so that the teeth stay in their place.

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